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Flapper independence was also a response to the Gibson girls of the 1890s. Scott Fitzgerald and Anita Loos and illustrators such as Russell Patterson, John Held, Jr., Ethel Hays and Faith Burrows popularized the flapper look and lifestyle through their works, and flappers came to be seen as attractive, reckless, and independent.
Among those who criticized the flapper craze was writer-critic Dorothy Parker, who penned "Flappers: A Hate Song" to poke fun at the fad.
The secretary of labor denounced the "flippancy of the cigarette smoking, cocktail-drinking flapper".
In the United States, popular contempt for Prohibition was a factor in the rise of the flapper.
With legal saloons and cabarets closed, back alley speakeasies became prolific and popular.